Critical Algorithm Studies: a Reading List

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Critical Algorithm Studies: a Reading List

This list is an attempt to collect and categorize a growing critical literature on algorithms as social concerns. The work included spans sociology, anthropology, science and technology studies, geography, communication, media studies, and legal studies, among others. Our interest in assembling this list was to catalog the emergence of “algorithms” as objects of interest for disciplines beyond mathematics, computer science, and software engineering.

As a result, our list does not contain much writing by computer scientists, nor does it cover potentially relevant work on topics such as quantification, rationalization, automation, software more generally, or big data, although these interests are well-represented in these works’ reference sections of the essays themselves.

This area is growing in size and popularity so quickly that many contributions are popping up without reference to work from disciplinary neighbors. One goal for this list is to help nascent scholars of algorithms to identify broader conversations across disciplines and to avoid reinventing the wheel or falling into analytic traps that other scholars have already identified. We also thought it would be useful, especially for those teaching these materials, to try to loosely categorize it. The organization of the list is meant merely as a first-pass, provisional sense-making effort. Within categories the entries are offered in chronological order, to help make sense of these rapid developments.

In light of all of those limitations, we encourage you to see it as an unfinished document, and we welcome comments. These could be recommendations of other work to include, suggestions on how to reclassify a particular entry, or ideas for reorganizing the categories themselves. Please use the comment space at the bottom of the page to offer suggestions and criticism; we will try to update the list in light of these suggestions.

This list is also available as a VISUAL TIMELINE and a public ZOTERO LIBRARY.

Tarleton Gillespie and Nick Seaver

last updated: 12.15.16

0. overviews
        0.1 technical and philosophical precursors / emic “what are algorithms?” essays
        0.2 field surveys / keywords / initial provocations
        0.3 books about algorithms addressed to broader audiences
        0.4 conferences focused on algorithms and society
        0.5 lists of algorithm studies resources
        0.6 syllabi that focus on algorithms and society
1. the specific implications of algorithms and the choices they make
        1.1 algorithms have embedded values / biases, lead to personalization / social sorting / discrimination
        1.2 with algorithms come rationalization / automation / quantification, and the erasure of human judgment / complexity / context
        1.3 questions of accountability and policy responses around algorithms
2. algorithms fit with, and help advance, specific ideological worldviews
3. algorithms are complex technical assemblages, that have to be mapped
4. algorithms aren’t just technical artifacts, they’re fundamentally human in their design and their use
        4.1 people design and maintain algorithms, in specific ways, and that matters
        4.2 people work, play, and live with algorithms, in specific ways, and that matters
        4.3 what do users understand about algorithms
        4.4 the discursive production of algorithms to shape their public perception
5. methods and approaches for studying algorithmic systems

0. overviews

0.1 technical and philosophical precursors / emic “what are algorithms?” essays

Wangsness, T. and J. Franklin. 1966. “Algorithm” and “formula.” Communications of the ACM 9(4), 243.

Weizenbaum, Joseph. 1976. Computer power and human reason: From Judgment to Calculation. New York: W. H. Freeman & Co.

Kowalski, Robert. 1979. “Algorithm = Logic + Control.” Communications of the ACM 22(7): 424-436.

Hooker, J.N. 1994. “Needed: An Empirical Science of Algorithms.” Operations Research 42(2): 201-212.

Moschovakis, Yiannis N. 2001. “What is an algorithm?” In Mathematics Unlimited — 2001 and beyond. Edited by B. Engquist and W. Schmid. Springer: 919-936.

Blass, Andreas and Gurevich, Yuri. 2003. “Algorithms: A quest for absolute definitions.” Bulletin of European Association for Theoretical Computer Science 81.

Gurevich, Yuri. 2014. “What is an Algorithm? (revised)” In Church’s Thesis: Logic, Mind and Nature (eds. A. Olszewski et al.) Copernicus Center Press.

Bullynck, Maarten. 2016. “Histories of algorithms: Past, present and future.” Historia Mathematica, 43(3), 332–341.

0.2 field surveys / keywords / initial provocations

Goffey, Andrew. 2008. “Algorithm.” In Software Studies: A Lexicon, edited by Matthew Fuller. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

Seaver, Nick. 2013. “Knowing Algorithms.” In Media in Transition 8. Cambridge, MA.

Barocas, Solon, Sophie Hood, and Malte Ziewitz. 2013. “Governing Algorithms: A Provocation Piece.”

Gillespie, Tarleton. 2014. “The Relevance of Algorithms.” In Media Technologies: Essays on Communication, Materiality, and Society, edited by Tarleton Gillespie, Pablo Boczkowski, and Kirsten Foot, 167-194. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (draft first published 2012)

Mahnke, Martina and Emma Uprichard. 2014 “Algorithming the Algorithm.” In Society of the Query Reader: Reflections on Web Search. René König and Miriam Rasch, eds. Amsterdam: Institute of Network Cultures.

Pasquale, Frank. 2015. The Black Box Society: The Secret Algorithms That Control Money and Information. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Striphas, Ted. 2015. “Algorithmic Culture.” European Journal of Cultural Studies 18(4-5): 395-412.

Ziewitz, Malte. 2016. “Governing Algorithms: Myth, Mess, and Methods.” Science, Technology & Human Values. 41(1): 3-16.

Gillespie, Tarleton. 2016. “Algorithm.” In Digital Keywords: A Vocabulary of Information Society and Culture, edited by Ben Peters. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

Kitchin, Rob. 2017. “Thinking Critically about and Researching Algorithms.” Information, Communication and Society, 20(1).

Beer, David. 2017. “The Social Power of Algorithms.” Information, Communication & Society, 20(1). forthcoming.

0.3 books about algorithms addressed to broader audiences

Steiner, Christopher. 2013. Automate This: How Algorithms Took Over Our Markets, Our Jobs, and the World. Portfolio.

Slavin, Kevin. 2011. “How Algorithms Shape Our World.” TedGlobal 2011

MacCormick, John, and Chris Bishop. 2013. Nine Algorithms That Changed the Future: The Ingenious Ideas That Drive Today’s Computers. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Cormen, Thomas H. 2013. Algorithms Unlocked. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.

Dormehl, Luke. 2014. The Formula: How Algorithms Solve All Our Problems… and Create More. New York, New York: Perigee Books.

Carr, Nicholas. 2015. The Glass Cage: How Our Computers Are Changing Us. W. W. Norton & Company.

Domingos, Pedro. 2015. The Master Algorithm: How the Quest for the Ultimate Learning Machine Will Remake Our World. New York: Basic Books.

0.4 conferences focused on algorithms and society

“Society of the Query #1” (INC, Amsterdam) November 2012

“Society of the Query #2” (INC, Amsterdam) November 2013

“Governing Algorithms” (NYU) May 2013

“The Contours of Algorithmic Life” (UC Davis) May 2014

“Algorithmic Cultures” (Univ. of Konstanz) June 2014

“Algorithms and Accountability” (NYU) February 2015

“Disciplines, Technologies, and Algorithm” (U Chicago) May 2015

“Algorithmic Regmies and Generative Strategies” (Vienna) December 2015

“Tyranny of the Algorithm: Predictive Analytics & Human Rights” (NYU) March 2016

“Unlocking the Black Box” (Yale Law) April 2016

“Data, Cognition and Intelligent Devices” (Centre for Interdisciplinary Methodologies, Warwick, UK) April 2016.

“Algorithms in Culture” (UC Berkeley) November 2016.

0.5 lists of algorithm studies resources

“Governing Algorithms” (NYU) reading list:

“Algorithm Studies” (UCHRI) literature survey:

Auditing Algorithms” (ICWSM workshop) background readings:

“Algorithm characterizations” Wikipedia

“The Algorithm Studies Network” resources:

0.6 syllabi that focus on algorithms and society

“Algorithms and Big Data: Methods and Controversies” (Mike Ananny, USC)

“Algorithmic Culture” (Christian Sandvig, University of Michigan)–%20Sandvig%20–%20Draft%20Syllabus.pdf

1. the specific implications of algorithms and the choices they make

(politics of artifacts / values in design approach)

1.1 algorithms have embedded values / biases and lead to personalization / social sorting / discrimination

(concerned about: designer intent vs unaware, how did it get there, where are the effects felt, are they visible to the affected)

Friedman, Batya and Nissenbaum, Helen. 1996. “Bias in Computer Systems,” ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 14(3): 330-347.

Nissenbaum, Helen and Walker, Decker. 1998. “Will Computers Dehumanize Education? A Grounded Approach to Values at Risk,” Technology in Society, 20: 237-273.

Introna, Lucas D., and Helen Nissenbaum. 2000. “Shaping the Web: Why the Politics of Search Engines Matters.” The Information Society 16(3): 169-185.

Introna, Lucas and Nissenbaum, Helen. 2000. “Defining the Web: The Politics of Search Engines,” IEEE Computer, 54-62.

Nissenbaum, Helen. 2001. “How Computer Systems Embody Values,” IEEE Computer, 120, 118-119.

Introna, Lucas D., and David Wood. 2004. ‘‘Picturing Algorithmic Surveillance: The Politics of Facial Recognition Systems.’’ Surveillance & Society 2 (2/3): 177-98

Graham, Stephen D. N. 2005. ‘‘Software-sorted Geographies.’’ Progress in Human Geography 29 (5): 562-580.

Hargittai, Eszter. 2007. The social, political, economic, and cultural dimensions of search engines: An introduction. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 12(3), 769-777.

Poon, Martha 2007. “Scorecards as devices for consumer credit: the case of Fair, Isaac & Company Incorporated” The Sociological Review. 55(2): 284-306.

Introna, Lucas and Nissenbaum, Helen, 2009. “Facial Recognition Technology: A Survey of Policy and Implementation Issues,” Report of the Center for Catastrophe Preparedness and Response, NYU.

Granka, Laura A. 2010. “The Politics of Search: A Decade Retrospective.” The Information Society 26 (5): 364-74.

Ananny, Mike. 2011. “The Curious Connection Between Apps for Gay Men and Sex Offenders.” The Atlantic. April 14.

Introna, Lucas D. 2011. “The Enframing of Code: Agency, Originality and the Plagiarist.” Theory, Culture & Society 28 (6): 113-41.

Anderson, Chris W. 2011. “Deliberative, Agonistic, and Algorithmic Audiences: Journalism’s Vision of Its Public in an Age of Audience Transparency.” International Journal of Communication 5: 19.

Lenglet, Marc. 2011. “Conflicting codes and codings: how algorithmic trading is reshaping financial regulation.” Theory, Culture & Society, 28(6), 44-66.

Lipartito, Kenneth. 2011. “The Narrative and the Algorithm: Genres of Credit Reporting from the Nineteenth Century to Today.”

Anderson, C. W. 2012. “Towards a Sociology of Computational and Algorithmic Journalism.” New Media & Society, 15(7) 1005-1021.

Noble, Safiya. 2012. “Missed Connections: What Search Engines Say about Women. Bitch magazine, 12(4): 37-41.

Pariser, Eli. 2012. The Filter Bubble: How the New Personalized Web Is Changing What We Read and How We Think. Reprint edition. New York, N.Y.: Penguin Books.

Halfaker, Aaron, Geiger, R. Stuart, Morgan, Jonathan, & Riedl, John. 2012. “The rise and decline of an open collaboration system: How Wikipedia’s reaction to popularity is causing its decline.” American Behavioral Scientist, 0002764212469365.

van Dijck, José. 2013. “Facebook and the Engineering of Connectivity: A Multi-Layered Approach to Social Media Platforms.” Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies 19(2): 141-155.

van Dijck, José. 2013. The Culture of Connectivity: A Critical History of Social Media. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Baker, Paul, and Amanda Potts. 2013. “‘Why Do White People Have Thin Lips?’ Google and the Perpetuation of Stereotypes via Auto-Complete Search Forms.” Critical Discourse Studies 10(2): 187-204.

Lenglet, Marc. 2013. “Algorithms and the Manufacture of Financial Reality”. In Harvey, P., Casella, E., Evans, G., Knox, H., McLean, C., Silva, E., Thoburn, N. and Woodward, K. (eds), Objects and Materials. A Routledge Companion. London, Routledge, 312-322.

Cardon, Dominique  and Libbrecht, Liz. 2013. “ Dans l’esprit du PageRank ”, Réseaux 1(177): 63-95.

McKelvey, Fenwick. 2014. “Algorithmic Media Need Democratic Methods: Why Publics Matter.” Canadian Journal of Communication 39(4): 597+.

Braverman, Irus. 2014. “Governing the Wild: Databases, Algorithms, and Population Models as Biopolitics.” Surveillance & Society 12(1): 15-37.

Latzer, Michael, Katharina Hollnbuchner, Natascha Just, and Florian Saurwein. 2014. “The economics of algorithmic selection on the Internet.” Zurich: Institute of Mass Communication and Media Research.

Pasquale, Frank. 2015. The Black Box Society: The Secret Algorithms That Control Money and Information. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Benthall, Sebastian. 2015.“Designing Networked Publics for Communicative Action.” Interface 1(1): 1-30.

Crawford, Kate. 2015. “Can an Algorithm Be Agonistic? Ten Scenes from Life in Calculated Publics.” Science, Technology & Human Values.

Tufekci, Zeynep. 2015. “Algorithmic Harms beyond Facebook and Google: Emergent Challenges of Computational Agency” Colorado Technology Law Journal. v13 n2

Bolin, Göran & Jonas Andersson Schwarz 2015. ‘Heuristics of the Algorithm. Big Data, User Interpretation and Translation Strategies’, Big Data & Society, July-Dec 2015: 1-12.

Greenfield, Adam. 2015. “Uber, or: The technics and politics of socially corrosive mobility.” Adam Greenfield’s Speedbird. June 29.

Lustig, Caitlin, and Nardi, Bonnie. 2015. “Algorithmic Authority: The Case of Bitcoin.” 48th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), 743-752.

Kennedy, Eric Brian. 2015. Voting by Quiz: Online Algorithms and Election Education. Engaging Science, Technology, and Society, 1, 73–78.

Milan, Stefania. 2015. “When Algorithms Shape Collective Action: Social Media and the Dynamics of Cloud Protesting.” Social Media & Society, 1(2).

Dörr, Konstantin. 2015. “Mapping the field of Algorithmic Journalism.” Digital Journalism, 4(6): 700-722.

Nahon, Karine. 2016, “Where there is Social Media, there is Politics”, in Bruns A., Skogerbo E., Christensen C., Larsson O.A. and Enli G.S., eds. Routledge Companion to Social Media and Politics. New York: Routledge: 39-55.

DeVito, Michael. 2016. “From Editors to Algorithms: A values-based approach to understanding story selection in the Facebook news feed.” Digital Journalism, forthcoming

Noble, Safiya. [forthcoming, 2016] Algorithms of Oppression: Race, Gender and Power in the Digital Age. New York: NYU Press.

Williamson, Ben. 2017. “Computing Brains: Learning Algorithms and Neurocomputation in the smart city.” Information, Communication & Society, 20(1).

Gillespie, Tarleton. 2017. “Algorithmically recognizable: Santorum’s Google problem, and Google’s Santorum problem.” Information, Communication & Society, 20(1).

1.2 with algorithms come rationalization / automation / quantification, and the erasure of human judgment / complexity / context

Dutton, William H., & Kraemer, Kenneth. 1980. “Automating bias.” Society, 17(2), 36–41.

Helmreich, Stefan. 1998. “Recombination, Rationality, Reductionism and Romantic Reactions: Culture, Computers, and the Genetic Algorithm.” Social Studies of Science 28(1): 39-71.

Thrift, Nigel, and Shaun French. 2002. “The Automatic Production of Space.” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 27(3): 309-335.

Graham, Stephen, & Wood, David. 2003. Digitizing surveillance: categorization, space, inequality. Critical Social Policy, 23(2), 227-248.

Pasquinelli, Matteo. 2009. “Google’s PageRank algorithm: a diagram of cognitive capitalism and the rentier of the common intellect” in Deep Search: The Politics of Search beyond Google. London: Transaction Publishers.

Nakamura, Lisa. 2009. “The socioalgorithmics of race: sorting it out in Jihad worlds.” In Shoshana Magnet & Kelly Gates, eds., The New Media of Surveillance. Abingdon: Routledge: 149-162.

Wilf, Eitan. 2013. “Toward an Anthropology of Computer-Mediated, Algorithmic Forms of Sociality.” Current Anthropology 54(6): 716-739.

Kockelman, Paul. 2013. “The anthropology of an equation. Sieves, spam filters, agentive algorithms, and ontologies of transformation.” Hau 3(3).

Wilf, Eitan. 2013. “From Media Technologies That Reproduce Seconds to Media Technologies That Reproduce Thirds: A Peircean Perspective on Stylistic Fidelity and Style-Reproducing Computerized Algorithms.” Signs and Society, 1(2), 185–211.

Grosser, Benjamin. 2014. “What Do Metrics Want? How Quantification Prescribes Social Interaction on Facebook.” Computational Culture.

Napoli, Philip M. 2014. “On Automation in Media Industries: Integrating Algorithmic Media Production into Media Industries Scholarship.” Media Industries 1(1).

Kockelman, Paul. 2014. “Linguistic anthropology in the age of language automata.” The Cambridge Handbook of Linguistic Anthropology. Cambridge University Press, 708-733.

Reigeluth, Tyler. 2014. Why data is not enough: Digital traces as control of self and self-control, Surveillance & Society 12(2): 243-254.

Seaver, Nick. 2015.  “Bastard algebra.” In Tom Boelstorff and Bill Maurer, eds.,  Data, Now Bigger and Better! Chicago: Prickly Paradigm Press.

Karppi, Tero, and Crawford, Kate. 2015. “Social Media, Financial Algorithms and the Hack Crash.” Theory, Culture & Society.

McQuillan, Daniel. 2015. “Algorithmic States of Exception.” European Journal of Cultural Studies 18(4/5).

Introna, Lucas. 2015. “Algorithms, Governance, and Governmentality: On Governing Academic Writing.” Science, Technology & Human Values.

Neyland, Daniel. 2015. “On Organizing Algorithms.” Theory, Culture & Society 32(1): 119-132.

Pasquale, Frank. 2015. “The Algorithmic Self.” 17(1) The Hedgehog Review.

Fourcade, Marion, and Kieran Healy. 2015. “Seeing Like a Market.”

Owen, Taylor. 2015. “The Violence of Algorithms.” Foreign Affairs.

Williamson, Ben. 2015. “Governing software: networks, databases and algorithmic power in the digital governance of public education.” Learning, Media and Technology 40(1): 83-105.

Cheney-Lippold, John (2016). Jus Algoritmi: How the National Security Agency Remade Citizenship. International Journal of Communication, 10, 22.

Just, Natascha and Latzer, Michael. 2016. “Governance by Algorithms: Reality Construction by Algorithmic Selection on the Internet.” Media, Culture & Society, forthcoming.

Ochigame, Rodrigo and Holston, James. 2016. “Filtering Dissent: Social Media and Land Struggles in Brazil” The New Left Review, 99: May-June.

1.3 questions of accountability and policy responses around algorithms

Pasquale, Frank. 2006. “Rankings, Reductionism, and Responsibility” Cleveland State Law Review, 54:115+.

Pasquale, Frank. 2006. “Rankings, Reductionism, and Responsibility” Cleveland State Law Review, 54:115+.

Neyland, D. 2007. “Achieving Transparency: The Visible, Invisible and Divisible in Academic Accountability Networks.” Organization 14 (4): 499–516.

Grimmelmann, James. 2008. “The Google Dilemma.” New York Law School Law Review, 53: 939.

Kraemer, Felicitas, Kees Overveld, and Martin Peterson. 2010. ‘‘Is There an Ethics of Algorithms?’’ Ethics and Information Technology 13 (3): 251-60.

McKelvey, Fenwick. 2010. “Ends and Ways: The Algorithmic Politics of Network Neutrality.” Global Media Journal: Canadian Edition 3(1): 51-73.

Anderson, Robert, and Sharrock, Wesley. 2013. “Ethical Algorithms: A Brief Comment on an Extensive Muddle.”

Crawford, Kate, and Jason Schultz. 2014. “Big Data and Due Process: Toward a Framework to Redress Predictive Privacy Harms.” Boston College Law Review, 55(1): 93+.

Diakopoulos, Nicholas. 2013. ‘‘Algorithmic Accountability Reporting: On the Investigation of Black Boxes.’’ A Tow/Knight Brief. New York: Columbia Journalism School, Tow Center for Digital Journalism.

O’Reilly, Tim. 2013. ‘‘Open Data and Algorithmic Regulation.’’ In Beyond Transparency: Open Data and the Future of Civic Innovation, edited by Brett Goldstein, 289-300. San Francisco, CA: Code for America Press.

Benjamin, S.M. (2013). “Algorithms and Speech.” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 161(6): 1445-1494.

Bozdag, Engin. 2013. ‘‘Bias in Algorithmic Filtering and Personalization.’’ Ethics and Information Technology 15 (3): 209-27.

Hazan, Joshua. (2013). “Stop Being Evil: A Proposal for Unbiased Google Search.” Michigan Law Review 111(5): 789-820.

Hildebrandt, Mireille and Rouvroy, Antoinette, eds. 2013. Law, Human Agency and Autonomic Computing: The Philosophy of Law Meets the Philosophy of Technology. Abingdon: Routledge.

Citron, Danielle Keats, and Frank A. Pasquale. 2014. “The Scored Society: Due Process for Automated Predictions.” Washington Law Review 89.

boyd, danah, Karen Levy, and Alice Marwick. 2014. “The Networked Nature of Algorithmic Discrimination.” Open Technology Institute.

Rosenblat, Alex, Kneese, Tamara, and boyd, danah. 2014 “Workshop Primer: Algorithmic Accountability” produced for “The Social, Cultural & Ethical Dimensions of Big Data” March 17, 2014 – New York, NY

Schuppli, Susan. 2014. “Deadly Algorithms: Can legal codes hold software accountable for code that kills?” Radical Philosophy 187: 1-8.

Diakopoulos, Nicholas. 2015. ‘‘Algorithmic Accountability.’’ Digital Journalism 3 (3): 398-415.

Burrell, Jenna. 2015. “How the Machine ‘Thinks:’ Understanding Opacity in Machine Learning Algorithms.”

Medina, Eden. 2015. “Rethinking algorithmic regulation”, Kybernetes, Vol. 44(6/7): 1005-1019.

Sadowski, Jathan. 2015. “From Mega-Machines to Mega-Algorithms.” The New Inquiry, April 28:

Saurwein, Florian, Just, Natascha, Latzer, Michael. 2015. “Governance of algorithms: options and limitations.” Info, Vol. 17 (6), 35-49.

Barocas, Solon, and Andrew D. Selbst. 2016. “Big Data’s Disparate Impact.” California Law Review, 104.

Zarsky, Tal. 2016. ‘‘The Trouble with Algorithmic Decisions: An Analytic Roadmap to Examine Efficiency and Fairness in Automated and Opaque Decision Making.’’ Science, Technology, & Human Values 41(1).

Luca, Michael, Jon Kleinberg, and Sendhil Mullainathan. 2016. “Algorithms Need Managers Too” Harvard Business Review Jan-Feb: 96-101.

Ananny, Mike. 2016. Toward an ethics of algorithms: Convening, observation, probability, and timeliness. Science, Technology, and Human Values, 41(1): 93-117.

Goodman, Bryce and Flaxman, Seth. 2016. EU regulations on algorithmic decision-making and a “right to explanation” presented at 2016 ICML Workshop on Human Interpretability in Machine Learning (WHI 2016), New York, NY.

Yeung, Karen. 2017. “’Hypernudge’: Big Data as a mode of regulation by design.” Information, Communication & Society, 20(1).

Gourarie, Chava.2016. “Investigating the algorithms that govern our lives.” Columbia Journalism Review. April 14.

2. algorithms fit with, and help advance, specific ideological worldviews

(critical theory approach, including capitalism, surveillance, subject/object)

Deleuze, Gilles. 1992. “Postscript on the Societies of Control.” October 59: 3-7.

Van Couvering, Elizabeth. 2004. “New Media? The Political Economy of Internet Search Engines.” In Annual Conference of the International Association of Media & Communications Researchers, Porto Alegre, Brazil, 25-30.

Galloway, Alexander R. 2006. Gaming: Essays On Algorithmic Culture. Minneapolis: University Of Minnesota Press.

Soderman, Braxton. 2007. “The Index and the Algorithm.” differences 18(1): 153–86.

Beer, David. 2009. “Power through the Algorithm? Participatory Web Cultures and the Technological Unconscious.” New Media & Society 11(6): 985-1002.

Golumbia, David. 2009. The Cultural Logic of Computation. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.

Fuller, Matthew and Goffey, Andrew. 2012. “Algorithms.” In Evil Media. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press: 69-82

Cheney-Lippold, John. 2011. “A New Algorithmic Identity: Soft Biopolitics and the Modulation of Control.” Theory, Culture & Society 28(6): 164-181.

Uricchio, William. 2011. “The Algorithmic Turn: Photosynth, Augmented Reality and the Changing Implications of the Image.” Visual Studies 26(1): 25-35.

Mager, Astrid. 2012. “Algorithmic Ideology: How Capitalist Society Shapes Search Engines.” Information, Communication & Society. 15(5) 769-787.  

Beer, David. 2013. “Algorithms: Shaping Tastes and Manipulating the Circulations of Popular Culture.” In Popular Culture and New Media: The Politics of Circulation. Palgrave McMillan: 63-100.

Manovich, Lev. 2013. Software Takes Command. New York: Bloomsbury Academic.

Snake-Beings, Emit. 2013. “From Ideology to Algorithm: the Opaque Politics of the Internet” Transformations: Journal of Media and Culture 23.

Snider, Laureen. 2014. “Interrogating the Algorithm: Debt, Derivatives and the Social Reconstruction of Stock Market Trading.” Critical Sociology 40(5): 747–61.

Kaplan, Frederic. 2014. “Linguistic Capitalism and Algorithmic Mediation.” Representations 127(1), 57-63.

Totaro, Paolo, and Ninno, Domenico. 2014. “The Concept of Algorithm as an Interpretative Key of Modern Rationality.” Theory, Culture & Society 31 (4): 29-49.

Hess, Aaron. 2014. You are what you compute (and what is computed for you): Considerations of digital rhetorical identification. Journal of Contemporary Rhetoric, 4(1/2), 1-18.

Mager, Astrid. 2014. “Defining Algorithmic Ideology: Using Ideology Critique to Scrutinize Corporate Search Engines.” tripleC: Communication, Capitalism & Critique, 12(1), 28-39.

Mackenzie, Adrian. 2015. “The Production of Prediction: What Does Machine Learning Want?” European Journal of Cultural Studies 18(4/5): 429–45.

Scannell, Josh. 2015. “What Can An Algorithm Do?” DIS Magazine

Uricchio, William. 2015. “Recommended for You: Prediction, Creation and the Cultural Work of Algorithms.” The Berlin Journal, 28: 6-9.

Danaher, John. 2016. “The Threat of Algocracy: Reality, Resistance and Accommodation.” Philosophy & Technology: 1-24

Totaro, Paolo and Domenico Ninno. 2016. “Algorithms and the Practical World.” Theory, Culture & Society 33: 139-152.

3. algorithms are complex technical assemblages, that have to be mapped

(actor network -ish)

Callon, Michel, and Muniesa, Fabian. 2005. “Economic Markets as Calculative Collective Devices.” Organization Studies, 26(8), 1229-1250.

MacKenzie, Donald A. 2006. An Engine, Not a Camera: How Financial Models Shape Markets. Inside Technology. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

Amoore, Louise. 2009. “Algorithmic War: Everyday Geographies of the War on Terror.” Antipode 41(1): 49–69

Ziewitz, Malte. 2011. How to think about an algorithm? Notes from a not quite random walk. Discussion paper for Symposium on “Knowledge Machines between Freedom and Control”, 29 September.

Miyazaki, Shintaro. 2012. “Algorhythmics: Understanding Micro-Temporality in Computational Cultures.” Computational Culture, 2.

Helmond, Anne. 2013. “The Algorithmization of the Hyperlink.” Computational Culture 3(3).

Kushner, Scott. 2013. “The Freelance Translation Machine: Algorithmic Culture and the Invisible Industry.” New Media & Society 15(8): 1241–58.

Weltevrede, Esther, Anne Helmond, and Carolin Gerlitz. 2014. “The Politics of Real-Time: A Device Perspective on Social Media Platforms and Search Engines.” Theory, Culture & Society 31 (6): 125–50.

Rouvroy, Antoinette and Berns, Thomas. 2013. “ Gouvernementalité algorithmique et perspectives d’émancipation ”, Réseaux 1(177): 163-196.

Geiger, R. Stuart. 2014. “Bots, Bespoke, Code and the Materiality of Software Platforms.” Information, Communication & Society 17 (3): 342–56.

Mackenzie, Donald. 2014. “A Sociology of Algorithms: High-Frequency Trading and the Shaping of Markets” working paper.

Muniesa, Fabian. 2014 “Discovering stock prices” in The Provoked Economy: Economic Reality and the Performative Turn. London: Routledge.

Mackenzie, Donald and Spears, Taylor, 2014. “‘The Formula That Killed Wall Street’: The Gaussian Copula and Modeling Practices in Investment Banking,” Social Studies of Science 44: 393-417. pre-print:

Rieder, Bernhard. 2015. “What Is in PageRank? A Historical and Conceptual Investigation of a Recursive Status Index.” Computational Culture.

Mackenzie, Donald. 2015. “How Algorithms Interact: Goffman’s ‘Interaction Order’ in Automated Trading” Working Paper.

Orlikowski, Wanda and Scott, Susan. 2015. “The Algorithm and the Crowd: Considering the Materiality of Service Innovation.” MIS Quarterly 39(1) 201-216.  

Neyland, Daniel & Möllers, Norma. 2016 “Algorithmic IF … THEN rules and the conditions and consequences of power,” Information, Communication & Society

4. algorithms aren’t just technical artifacts, they’re fundamentally human in their design and their use

(social construction of technical systems approach / anthropology and ethnographic instinct)

4.1 people design and maintain algorithms, in specific ways, and that matters

Sterne, Jonathan. 2006. “The mp3 as cultural artifact.” New Media & Society. 8(5): 825-842.

van Couvering, Elizabeth. 2007. “Is Relevance Relevant? Market, Science, and War: Discourses of Search Engine Quality” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 12(3), 866-887.

Ensmenger, Nathan. 2012. “Is Chess the Drosophila of Artificial Intelligence? A Social History of an Algorithm.” Social Studies of Science 42(1): 5-30.

Vaidhyanathan, Siva. 2012. The Googlization of Everything (And Why We Should Worry) Berkeley: UC Press.

Ziewitz, Malte. 2012. “Evaluation as Governance: The Practical Politics of Reviewing, Rating and Ranking on the Web.” PhD Thesis, Oxford: University of Oxford.

Sterne, Jonathan. 2012. MP3: The Meaning of a Format. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Seaver, Nick. 2012. “Algorithmic Recommendations and Synaptic Functions” Limn 1(2).

Mackenzie, Adrian. 2013. “Programming Subjects in the Regime of Anticipation: Software Studies and Subjectivity.” Subjectivity 6(4): 391-405.

Diakopolous, Nick. 2013. “Sex, Violence, and Autocomplete Algorithms” Slate. August 2.

Hallinan, Blake, and Ted Striphas. 2014. “Recommended for You: The Netflix Prize and the Production of Algorithmic Culture.” New Media & Society, 18(1), 117-137.

Webmoor, Timothy. 2014. “Algorithmic Alchemy, or the Work of Code in the Age of Computerized Visualization.” In Annamaria Carusi, Aud Sissel Hoel, Timothy Webmoor, and Steve Woolgar, eds., Visualization in the Age of Computerization. 19-39. New York: Routledge.

Bogost, Ian. 2015. ‘‘The Cathedral of Computation.’’ The Atlantic, January 15.

Cardoso Llach, Daniel. 2015. Builders of the Vision: Software and the Imagination of Design. London, New York: Routledge.

Arnoldi, Jakob. (2016). “Computer Algorithms, Market Manipulation and the Institutionalization of High Frequency Trading.” Theory, Culture & Society, 33(1): 29-52.

4.2 people work, play, and live algorithms, in specific ways, and that matters

(mediated cultural practices approach)

Kitchin, Rob and Dodge, Martin. 2011. Code/Space: Software and Everyday Life. MIT Press

Beunza, Daniel and Millo, Yuval. 2015. “Blended automation: integrating algorithms on the floor of the New York Stock Exchange” SRC Discussion Paper No. 38. London School of Economics and Political Science.

Ekbia, Hamid and Bonnie Nardi. 2014. “Heteromation and Its (Dis)contents: the Invisible Division of Labor Between Humans and Machines.” First Monday 19(6).

Aneesh, Aneesh. 2009. “Global Labor: Algocratic Modes of Organization*.” Sociological Theory 27 (4). Wiley Online Library: 347–70.

Geiger, R. Stuart. 2011. “The Lives of Bots.” In Wikipedia: A Critical Point of View. Geert Lovink and Nathaniel Tkacz, eds. Amsterdam: Institute of Network Cultures.

Bucher, Taina. 2012. “Want to Be on the Top? Algorithmic Power and the Threat of Invisibility on Facebook.” New Media & Society 14 (7): 1164–80.

Gillespie, Tarleton. 2012. “Can an Algorithm Be Wrong?” Limn 1(2).

van Dalen, Arjen. 2012. “The Algorithms behind the Headlines: How machine-written news redefines the core skills of human journalists.” Journalism Practice 6(5-6), 648-658.

Schüll, Natasha Dow. 2014. Addiction by Design: Machine Gambling in Las Vegas. Reprint edition. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Carah, Nicholas 2015. “Algorithmic brands: A decade of brand experiments with mobile and social media” New Media & Society.

Ananny, Mike & Crawford, Kate. 2015. A liminal press: Situating news app designers within a field of networked news production. Digital Journalism, 3(2), 192-208.

Lee, Min Kyung, Kusbit, Daniel, Metsky, Evan and Dabbish, Laura. 2015. “Working with Machines: The Impact of Algorithmic and Data-Driven Management on Human Workers” CHI ’15 Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems: 1603-1612

Applin, Sally and Michael Fischer. 2015. “New Technologies and Mixed-Use Convergence: How Humans and Algorithms are Adapting to Each Other.” In IEEE International Symposium on Technology and Society (ISTAS 2015). 11 Nov, Dublin, Ireland.

Carlson, Matt. 2015. “The Robotic Reporter: Automated journalism and the redefinition of labor, compositional forms, and journalistic authority.” Digital Journalism 3(3): 416-431.

Rossiter, Ned and Zehle, Soenke. 2015. “The Aesthetics of Algorithmic Experience.” In Randy Martin, ed., The Routledge Companion to Art and Politics, New York: Routledge.

Gillespie, Tarleton. 2016. “#trendingistrending:when algorithms become culture” forthcoming in Algorithmic Cultures: Essays on Meaning, Performance and New Technologies, Robert Seyfert and Jonathan Roberge, eds. Routledge.

Wolf, Christine. 2016. “DIY videos on YouTube: Identity and possibility in the age of algorithms.” First Monday, 21(6).

Willson, Michele. 2017. “Algorithms (and the) everyday.” Information, Communication & Society, 20(1).

4.3 what do users understand about algorithms

Hamilton, Kevin, Karrie Karahalios, Christian Sandvig, and Motahhare Eslami. 2014. “A Path to Understanding the Effects of Algorithm Awareness.” In CHI 2014, 631-642. ACM Press.

Devendorf, Laura and Elizabeth Goodman. 2014. “The Algorithm Multiple, the Algorithm Material.” Contours of Algorithmic Life, UC Davis, May.

Dietvorst, Berkeley, Simmons, Joseph, and Massey, Cade. 2014. “Algorithm Aversion: People Erroneously Avoid Algorithms after Seeing Them Err (July 6,). Forthcoming in Journal of Experimental Psychology.

Berg, Martin. 2014. Participatory trouble: Towards an understanding of algorithmic structures on Facebook. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial research on Cyberspace, 8(3).

Eslami, Motahhare, Rickman, Aimee, Vaccaro, Kristen, Aleyasen, Amirhossein, Vuong, Andy, Karahalios, Karrie, Hamilton, Kevin, & Sandvig, Christian. 2015. “I always assumed that I wasn’t really that close to [her]”: Reasoning about Invisible Algorithms in News Feeds.” 33rd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. 153-162.

Bucher, Taina. 2016. “The algorithmic imaginary: exploring the ordinary affects of Facebook algorithms.” Information, Communication & Society.

Rader, Emilee, and Gray, Rebecca. 2015. “Understanding User Beliefs About Algorithmic Curation in the Facebook News Feed.” In Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. New York, NY, USA: ACM: 173-182.

Bucher, Taina. 2017. “The algorithmic imaginary: exploring the ordinary affects of Facebook algorithms.” Information, Communication & Society, 20(1).

4.4 the discursive production of algorithms to shape their public perception

Sandvig, Christian. 2015. “Seeing the Sort: The Aesthetic and Industrial Defense of ‘The Algorithm.’” Journal of the New Media Caucus

Roberge, Jonathan and Melançon, Louis. 2015. “Being the King Kong of algorithmic culture is a tough job after all: Google’s regimes of justification and the meanings of Glass.” Convergence.

Neyland, Daniel. 2016. “Bearing Account-Able Witness to the Ethical Algorithmic System.” Science, Technology & Human Values 41(1).

Birkbak, Andreas and Hjalmar Bang Carlsen. 2016. “The World of Edgerank: Rhetorical Justifications of Facebook’s News Feed Algorithm.” Computational Culture 5.

Bucher, Taina. 2016. “‘Machines don’t have instincts’: Articulating the computational in journalism.” New Media & Society

Bilic, Pasko. 2016. “Search algorithms, hidden labour, and information control” Big Data & Society, January-June 2016: 1-9

5. methods and approaches for studying algorithmic systems

Ratto, Matt. 2011. “Critical Making: Conceptual and Material Studies in Technology and Social Life.” The Information Society 27 (4): 252–60.

Edelman, Benjamin. 2011. “Bias in Search Results? Diagnosis and Response.” Indian Journal of Law and Technology 7: 16-32.

Marres, Noortje. 2012. “The redistribution of methods: on intervention in digital social research, broadly conceived.” The Sociological Review, 60(S1): 139-165.

Diakopolous, Nick. 2013. “Rage against the Algorithms” The Atlantic, October 3.

Sandvig, Christian, Kevin Hamilton, Karrie Karahalios, and Cedric Langbort. 2014. “Auditing Algorithms: Research Methods for Detecting Discrimination on Internet Platforms.” Data and Discrimination: Converting Critical Concerns into Productive Inquiry, 64th Annual Meeting of the International Communication Association. May 22, 2014, Seattle, WA, USA.–%20Sandvig%20–%20ICA%202014%20Data%20and%20Discrimination%20Preconference.pdf

Sandvig, Christian, Hamilton, Kevin, Karahalios, Karrie, & Langbort, Cedric. 2014. “An Algorithm Audit.” In: Seeta Peña Gangadharan, ed., Data and Discrimination: Collected Essays. 6-10. Washington, DC: New America Foundation.

Rieder, Bernard, and Sire, Guillaume. 2014. “Conflicts of Interest and Incentives to Bias: A Microeconomic Critique of Google’s Tangled Position on the Web.” New Media & Society 16 (2): 195–211.

Gehl, Robert W. 2014. Reverse Engineering Social Media: Software, Culture, and Political Economy in New Media Capitalism. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Temple University Press.

Hannak, Aniko, Mislove, Alan, Soeller, Gary, Wilson, Chirsto, and Lazer, David. 2014. “Measuring price discrimination and steering on e-commerce web sites.” Paper presented at 2014 Conference on Internet Measurement Conference. 305-318.

Burrell, Jenna. 2016. “How the Machine ‘Thinks:’ Understanding Opacity in Machine Learning Algorithms.” Big Data & Society, 3(1).

Perrotta, Carlo and Williamson, Ben. 2016. “The social life of Learning Analytics: cluster analysis and the ‘performance’ of algorithmic education.” Learning Media and Technology, forthcoming.

Rieder, Bernhard. 2016. “Scrutinizing an Algorithmic Technique: The Bayes Classifier as Interested Reading of Reality.” Information, Communication & Society, forthcoming.

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